Fabricating 7 Nanometre Chips without Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

The delays in developing and deploying extreme ultraviolet lithography have led semiconductor manufacturers to resort to increasingly baroque schemes to continue to pack more transistors onto their chips with equipment never designed for such densities. Delving into the details gives an appreciation of the tottering tower of dirty tricks upon which cutting-edge technology depend and admiration for those who regard the physical limits of light propagation as suggestions, not constraints.

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