Communications Satellites, Part 5: Direct to Home Satellite Broadcasting

Practical satellite broadcasting to individual customers required placing very large and heavy satellites in geostationary orbit, three-axis stabilised, equipped with solar panels able to generate the required power, and a large antenna to direct signals to customers with fixed dish antennas practical to install on a roof. While the first geostationary satellites (see Part 3) had an orbital mass of less than 50 kilograms, some present-day satellites such as the Hughes Jupiter 3 mass more than 9 tonnes and are as large as a bus.

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